The current article is about the educational system of the UK. So, it is an informative article that will discuss the shared management concept of the government to the autonomy of local authorities and institutions, and the emergence of independent education from public funds in England. It will also talk about the funding reform in the England.
Shared Management Tending Towards Greater Autonomy of Local Authorities and Institutions
The Government and the Westminster Parliament are responsible for the UK’s educational policy in general. They set the national curriculum, the teachers’ qualification as well as their salaries. The 2009 reform in this sector, at local level, has greatly streamlined the administrative division of the country, each community develops a local authority, controlled by a board that consists of representatives of various education stakeholders. These authorities administer all the public educational institutes, allocate resources (material and financial); set the plan of the recruitment policy and pay all the staff (both academic and non-academic). These are schools who then organise individual teacher recruitment while boards of directors appointing the institutions’ heads, making the strategy at the institutional level, ensure the proper expenditure management and make sure the learning outcomes.
However, overall educational policy is controlled by two institutions, which include the Office for Standard Education and the Children’s Services and Skills. Both are responsible for the inspection of general education, services offered to children, vocational training programs, etc. They make sure that the quality of higher education is consistent throughout the country.
The Emergence of Independent Education from Public Funds in England
The education reform in 2010 in terms of the introduction of Academies Act 2010 intended to increase the number of independent schools throughout the England, comprising facilitating the arrival of academies, which are financially supported by public money, paid directly by the government. More than 200 secondary schools, before the reform, had the academy status.However, now all the government schools can be converted into academies and account more than 2880 with over 2 million students. In fact, all these institutions are free to manage their matters like recruiting staff, andestablishing teaching strategies and programs. Even they can change the school calendar.
The motivations for public schools to convert to academy system are generally increasing their financial means. It is admitted by about 35% of respondents that academies were their main inspiration and almost three quarters of academies say their financial prospects have ameliorated since their conversion, the personalised management. They also gained the autonomy to freely manage their budgets, thinking their educational strategy and to cooperate with other institutions that governed by the local authorities.
Funding Reform in England
In England, financing of education policy is at the top and the allocation of financial resources is then made in accordance with the teaching levels and types of institutions.
The public schools are financially supported by grants allocated to them (dedicated school grant or DSG) calculated by the government, approved by the Education Funding Agency and then divided by the local authorities to fulfil the specific needs of the institution. Almost 80% of the total budget for public education are represented by them that administered by local authorities, the rest of the budget is furnished through grants and special allowances and compensations paid by schools. The allocation of financial resources is a complex and cloudy calculation resulting in an extensive variation in the schools’ budgets.
Faced with this perplexing system and always a wish to rationalise public policies, a reform was passed by the Westminster Government and Parliament on the basis of Funding of Education, not on the institution’s type, but on the number of students. This new system of funding was started in the beginning of 2014.However, the government continues to financially support the education with the help of local authorities that will ascertain a lump sum to be allocated to their concerned schools. This fund is for staff salaries, costs of equipment and their maintenance as the same for all public institutions without distinction of size, location or age of the students. This rebalancing in the budget will lower the higher budgets. For the year 2013, the government pledged not to cut more than 1.5% public funding to schools. The only variations budget will then come through extra subsidies proportional to the number of students in each school.
Public higher education, the government wants more and more self-governing, enjoys itself, the private funding based public budget, comprising tuition students (35) and private investment (about 34% of the budget). While public funding for higher education 2011-12 declined by 6.7% that the last year, the full budget has augmented by almost 400 million pounds. This drop in public funding was significantly offset by the surge of tuition fees paid by students (7.8%), which can now reach 9,000 pounds each year.
The educational model of the UK strictly favours decentralised and local management; either by local authorities or by boards consists of independent directors. If both the primary and secondary public education remains linked with the public authorities, higher education and vocational training programs are developed mainly on public-private partnerships. England is continuously going forward in the direction of greater school autonomy reform and progressively changing the educational background of the country. Thus, eliminating the administrative levels between the governments, which subsidises streamlined schools that are independent, the Westminster has a desire to run the competition between schools and therefore, raise the educational level of its students while controlling its public expenditure.
Elena Erin holds a master’s degree in English Literature. Moreover, she currently is a professional writer atEssay yard to help students to complete their academic assignments. She works for the sake of students who want to acquire Essay writers help provided to enhance their skills and performance.